Diabetes Prevention Programme

Prevention is proven to be one of the most effective and powerful methods to fight diabetes. More than 50% of diabetes is caused due to inappropriate lifestyle. Regulating lifestyle can prove to be advantageous in downfall of probability of contracting diabetes in one’s life. Loss of weight not only helps in fitness but also in control of blood sugar levels. Losing 10% of initial body weight and regular exercise can immensely reduce the risk of diabetes. Physical activities play a key role in reducing the body weight and on the other also the extra blood sugar is broken down. It also helps to uphold the blood sugar in the normal range.

Food choices : Foodstuffs containing low glycemic carbohydrates, proteins or fats can initially help to lose body weight and maintain dancing blood sugar level. Prefer healthy foods which are low in fats and calories and fruits and vegetables. Go slow on fast and fried foodstuffs for prevention of diabetes.

The Fundamentals to prevent diabetes : Diabetes can be prevented by good production of the insulin and keeping the body fat percent low. Insulin and fats helps to maintain body weight and control sugar level. Consumption of meals to a small fraction instead of heavy food also helps to control diabetes. Also avoid eating carbohydrates few hours before you go to sleep. Taking in high-protein breakfast and 5 or 6 small meals a day also helps you to maintain the body weight. This will also help to control excess consumption of fats and carbohydrates.

Lifestyle modification:

The three components of lifestyle modification are diet, exercise, and behavior therapy. Several reviews have found that standard lifestyle modification programs conducted in academic medical centers induce a mean weight reduction of approximately 8–10% of initial weight in 16–26 weeks of treatment.

Furthermore, physical activity appears to reduce serious clinical complications and mortality risk in patients with diabetes. There are, however, numerous important questions that remain to be addressed regarding clinical and public health issues related to physical activity and diabetes.

For example, the Finnish Diabetes Study (FDS) and the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) were large, well-designed, well-conducted, state-of-the-art clinical trials, and the results are compelling. However, some key questions remain unanswered. Are the protective effects of increased physical activity mediated by or independent of dietary changes and weight loss? What is the extent to which lifestyle interventions can be extended into the general population at large? Can a family physician or internal medicine practitioner successfully implement dietary, physical activity, and weight loss programs so that a high percentage of patients can make lifestyle changes and reduce their risk?

Population subgroups.

Prevention and treatment studies involving physical activity interventions need to be conducted in diverse subpopulations. Do the interventions have similar effects in younger and older participants, various racial or ethnic groups, those with various other health problems or diseases, and women and men? Considerably more data are needed from large representative populations with broad age ranges and with diverse race-ethnicity and socioeconomic status.

Specific types, amounts, and intensities of physical activity.

There is a need for more research examining the different combinations of intensity, duration, and amount. For example, to what extent can activity be accumulated? Do six 5-min physical activity sessions per day provide the same benefit as one 30-min session? Does exercise intensity make any difference if the total volume of exercise is held constant? The consensus public health recommendation of 30 min of moderate intensity activity on at least 5 days/wk appears to help prevent or treat diabetes. Suppose a participant gets only one-half that amount, is there any benefit? Suppose a participant gets 60 min of activity/day, is there additional benefit beyond the 30-min recommendation, and if so, how much? Most of the research on physical activity and diabetes has used a general aerobic exercise prescription, although there is some evidence that resistance exercise also may provide benefits. More work on resistance exercise is needed, and investigations on the specific combinations of exercise type, amount, and intensity also are needed.

Studies on mechanisms.

Studies are needed that examine the role that physical activity has in modifying the expression of diabetes in individuals with genetic susceptibility. A better understanding of how acute and chronic activity exposures influence specific cellular mechanisms of glycemic control. Investigations also are needed to characterize the interaction of physical activity and insulin-sensitizing drugs as therapies in individuals with impaired glycemic control and frank diabetes.

Key Points

In the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study, intensive lifestyle interventions also resulted in a dramatic reduction in the risk of developing diabetes among high-risk individuals.
The study involved 522 middle-aged, overweight subjects (mean BMI 31 kg/m2) with impaired glucose tolerance who were randomized to either lifestyle intervention (i.e., individualized counseling aimed at reducing weight, reducing total intake of fat, reducing intake of saturated fat, increasing intake of fiber, and increasing physical activity) or no treatment. The mean duration of follow-up was 3.2 years.

At Year 6, the risk of diabetes was 60 percent lower (p<0.001) in the intervention group. The reduction in the incidence of diabetes was directly associated with changes in lifestyle.

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